At the dawn of the twentieth century, mankind had the opportunity to return to those forms of acquiring knowledge which the European consciousness inherited from Greek civilization, but lost mainly with the development of a scientific (objective, specialized) view of the world, starting with the Middle Ages, and especially later, with the development of industrial and industrial society. This return has become possible as a result of the emergence and spread of modern forms of learning.
In formulating the concept of this knowledge, the ancient Greeks consistently sought to form "proved by the logic, the mind" of the truth about the existing harmony of the world. "The last truths of logical thinking" for them were more important than individual facts that did not fit into the established picture of the world. As a result, "education" represented the unity of the three components - knowledge, understanding and action, forming the living space of man.
To ensure that the interaction between "teacher" and "student" corresponds to the ancient ideal of education, at least the following requirements should have been fulfilled:
• the full presence of all three components "here and now";
• in the basis of education - the movement from action, through the process of understanding to knowledge;
• the attention of both the student and the teacher is addressed to "the world, nature" in an attempt to jointly build "images of nature", rather than "translating knowledge" from the head of the teacher into the student's head.
Broadcasting knowledge from one head to another, transferring knowledge from one person to another, is no longer education but learning. In the study, the concentration of attention is not on "nature" (it is believed that it will happen later), but on the knowledge that the teacher has and who is trying to convey to the student. Understanding and acting during the training are degenerate, secondary in nature. Meanwhile, the transfer of knowledge from teacher to student becomes the main task of communication between teacher and student. And the more complex the knowledge and methods of transferring to the student become, the more distant the "nature" is about which this knowledge speaks.
Technical knowledge was beyond the scope of what in ancient Greece was considered a worthy education. It is known, for example, that the great mathematician Archimedes, despite the fact that his theoretical work was found in the technique, he considered engineering knowledge "a matter of low and ungrateful." And his actions under the siege of Syracuse were caused by military necessity.
Professional craft activities, like the "fate of slaves", were also not considered as an educational subject. Here, training was conducted through demonstration of samples of activities and the gradual development of production operations.
Such an attitude is laid not only in the caste nature of society. In the ancient period, technological development and economic life were not a priority, did not occupy a leading place in the scale of values.
The reference point in the history of the formation of medieval education and associated with the Carolingian Renaissance is the reign of Charlemagne. This is especially due to the fact that historically this is, perhaps, one of the first examples of state influence on the creation of a system of school education, which, according to the decrees, was formed on the basis of monasteries. Decrees actually consolidated the existing trends of practice.
Monasteries, with libraries, were the edges of some educational network, while they, along with the function of religious education, played the role of modern technical and educational centers, since they gave the opportunity to commoners to master, for example, the technology of preservation and processing of food products, agriculture. In the monasteries, as a rule, there were food processing operations, hospitals operated. Thus, religious education was combined with medical, everyday life.
Characteristically, medieval scholars and students easily migrated from place to place.
The purpose of medieval education is completely different from the ancient one. She sought to teach, first of all, as it is not paradoxical, fear. The fear of God is the beginning of the long path leading to wisdom.
The fear of God cleanses and transforms man. A man recalls the good beginning of God's embedded in it. She seeks to reject passions, vicious desires and thoughts. Gradually, in the process of education, a "new" person is born, not burdened with low and dark feelings.
Fear and love at the same time. "Love to wisdom" (so from the Greek literally translated word philosophy) is replaced by "love of God"
The use of fear and punishment also contributed to the content of education, as another way of proving the truth of the dogmas in which the official medieval church turned Christian teaching was difficult to find.
Much later, in the XIX century, I.F. In her holistic authoritarian pedagogical system, Herbart has particularly worked hard on developing a student's technology of control, including "threat, supervision, order, prohibition, punishment, etc.
The freedom to choose the subjects of study, the ways of their interpretation and teaching, which was the most vivid embodiment in the private Parisian schools of the XII century, was more and more contradictory with the church's basis, which is predominantly dogmatic. Single-channel communication without feedback, lecture-sermon, translation of incontestable truths from the head of the teacher into the student's head was more adequate to the dogmatic content.
The disputes, which were a necessary element of the university practice of the Middle Ages, have almost completely disappeared over the centuries. And if the main forms of study at the first universities - Bologna and Paris (the turn of the XII-XIII centuries) - were reading, text analysis, and then the debate where the main "responder" was the lecturer, and students, asking questions, could learn from his answers, then gradually classes became a prototype of modern lectures.
The further course of history contributed to the degeneration of education into learning, the process of which will be shown using the historical periodization of K. Tateissi, which highlighted several technological revolutions in the past and in the near future.
Historically, the European consciousness finally moved from education to education in the period after the XVIII century, with the onset of the first industrial revolution, when the scientific world began to occupy a dominant place in building a picture of the world, which determined the victory of education over education.
Coming back to the seventeenth century, it is impossible not to mention the works of Jan Amos Komensky, who in fact made a revolution in pedagogy (in 1657, he published the book "Great Didactics"), introduced the use of illustrated textbooks in teaching. Comenius transformed his studies into science, although his ideas were used mainly in school education. His formulated teaching method of teaching became the foundation of pedagogical technology for centuries.
"The art of teaching does not require anything other than the artistic distribution of time, subjects and method. If we can accurately establish this distribution, then teaching the school youth in any number will not be harder than taking a drawing tool, cover thousands of pages with beautiful letters every day, or by installing an Archimedean car, transporting buildings, towers, all kinds of goods or, Sitting on the ship, swim the ocean and go to the New World. Everything will go forward no less easily than the hours go ... just as pleasing and joyful, as pleasant and joyful to look at this kind of automatic machine, and, finally, with such loyalty, which can only be achieved in such a precision instrument. Consequently, in the name of the Most High, we will try to establish such a system of schools that would correspond exactly to the clock "
Disciplinary dismemberment of the content of education and predominantly reproductive methods of mastering scientific knowledge have created a special way of thinking, a special vision of the world, recorded at the mental level.
From the earliest age we are taught to solve problems in parts, to divide the whole world into parts. This, of course, helps to cope with difficult tasks, but for this we, without knowing it, pay too much. We cease to see the consequences of our actions, we lose the inner connection with the whole. When we then try to "see the world as it is," we have to mentally collect fragments of ideas about it. But, as Dr. David Bohm said, it's a worthwhile venture - the same thing that glued a broken mirror to restore a lost image. And we have to refuse to try to see the world as a whole.
Hence the helplessness of technocratic thinking that attempts to capture the picture of rapidly changing processes through the study of static states, where the construction of linear causation schemes does not allow to see the real multiplicity of interdependence of phenomena.
The education of the attitude towards education continues to be continued, as to hard work, the reward for which is realized in the form of future successes. As a result of excessive stresses in the school and the institute due to adverse environmental factors and the absence of a common culture of healthy lifestyles, the health of the younger generation is known to have a tendency to deteriorate. This is due to the fact that the person is still the object of exploitation, and existing education is not only a means of human development, but also a means of its exploitation.
Modern development trends encourage closer look at the foundations of Eastern philosophy, where the ideal of human existence advocates not so much the maximum realization of man in the production activity, but the philosophy of adaptation, the man's entrance into the outside world, the focus of human activity on his inner world.
It is now clear that the economic phenomenon of Japan can not be understood without the features of Japanese management, based on national cultural traditions.
In anthropogenic society, man's control is carried out mainly not as a result of the physical coercion and power of one person over another. Relationships of personal dependence are realized through new social connections. At the same time, the development of market relations led to the exchange of results of activity as a commodity.
The form of medieval coercion through physical punishment or fear of God has changed into other forms of coercion that are more hidden, but no less refined. As a result, students or students consider many aspects related to education not as an opportunity for development, but as an external necessity, and often as a punishment, which parents, teachers, institutions, heads, ministries of education, etc. .
In a market economy, knowledge, qualifications become the capital of a specialist who can use it on the labor market. The problem of discipline and motivation of students and students to study is missing - they themselves want to learn to become "richer in knowledge and skills."
At the tip of the corner is the independent work of those who are taught, the self-organization of their educational activities. On these principles and distance education is built.